Although in a university environment a lot of empirical measurements has to be carried out, some RF-tests are so common that we decided to create some of these standard test set-ups in our RF lab to be ready for use, as there are:
So with these Set-ups we are able to measure rather swiftly phase noise, s-parameters, jitter etc. without paying a lot of attention to the measurement environment.
Here below more details of the above mentioned set-up compositions are denoted. To accommodate for specific tests to be carried out adaptation of these set-ups can be worked out if possible.
A photo of this specific Set Up
The total setup in block schematics:
The set-up consists of:
- The Test Set E5501B
- Spectrum analyzer E4404B
- RF Synthesizer 8665B
- Hp Vectra Controller
The E5500 B-series have been tailored to meet the extensive development needs of the R&D engineer, providing the highest possible capability at the lowest possible cost. This series provides superior frequency offset range, capability, sensitivity, and overall value for phase noise measurements.
Superior Frequency Offset Range
The E5500 B-series provide complete 0.01 Hz to 100 MHz offset range measurement capability without the need for additional base band analysis hardware. A PC digitizer, along with a broadband RF spectrum analyzer, provides not only a complete phase noise measurement solution, but the swept RF spectrum analyzer can also be used for many other independent R&D measurement functions. All of this for a price you might expect to pay for other, more limited, measurement solutions.
The E5501B provides a low internal noise floor.
Capability and Flexibility
The E5501B has an internal noise floor well below the noise of most reference sources and does not require a special phase detector to lower the noise floor further. For situations where standard RF signal generators may not offer sufficient measurement sensitivity, the E5501B can use any voltage tuneable source as a reference source.
Other features include:
• Plotting data without spurs
• Tabular listing of spurs
• Plotting in alternate bandwidths
• Parameter summary
• Plotting several different measurements on the same displayed graph
For network analysis up to frequencies of 43.5 GHz our Lab has several NWA's, look up for them at our instruments tab, to use them together with e.g. a Cascade RF-probe station for s-parameters measurements on wafer.
Of course you can measure discrete devices as well. For calibrating this setup we do have specific calibration kits for a 3.5mm as well as a 2.4mm environment. For wafer calibrations cal substrates for GSG, GS and SG are available.
A photo of a Network Analysis System.
Cascade Summit 9100 RF-probestation with Olympus microscope.
Exists of 4 probe manipulators Positions: East-West and North-South
This set-up exists of an automated impedance control system that permits the introduction of a wide range of known source and load impedances into device measurement systems for determination of various parameters under actual operating conditions.
The ATS (Automated Tuner System) is primarily used for accurate de-embedded performance evaluation of the power, intermodulation distortion, adjacent channel power, noise, and network (S-parameter) characteristics of packaged or on-wafer devices under various impedance matching conditions.
The system consist of application software, an automated slide screw tuner, and a GPIB compatible tuner controller. System components are also available separately.
Our Load Pull Tuner can also be a part of the wafer probe station set-up where all the relevant instruments can be integrated to establish your desired test environment.
Together with the TDS7404 a software package is included that makes it possible to perform jitter measurements with a RMS resolution of 1.5 ps. The outcome can be presented in different ways, e.g. like a histogram
User-installed, Oscilloscope-resident Timing Analysis Package
Electronic design engineers in semiconductor and communications industries develop systems with high clock speeds and reduced timing margins. As clock frequencies in the industry continue to increase, timing margins become more critical. Sophisticated techniques are required to properly characterize the placement of these clock and data edges. Customers in these industries need to ensure that the timing margins in their designs are not violated because of excessive jitter. The TDS7000 oscilloscopes have superb jitter analysis capabilities on non-contiguous clocks with their histogram and statistics capabilities. The Tektronix TDSJIT2 jitter analysis software will extend that capability by making jitter measurements on contiguous clock and data cycles from single-shot acquisitions. TDSJIT2 provides many key timing parameter measurements. These are specifically designed to meet the jitter measurement needs of today’s high speed digital designers in the computer and communications industries. Measurements can be made on differential signals and between two separate input signals. Trend plots quickly show how various timing parameters change over time. Comprehensive statistics and histograms of timing parameters enhance the powerful analysis capabilities of TDSJIT2. For the first time, you can make a setup time measurement for a specific data edge to the exact, corresponding clock for all valid transitions in an acquisition.
Key features are:
The Measurements Include: Cycle-Cycle, N-Cycle, Skew, Period, Width, Duty Cycle, Frequency, Time Interval Error, Data Jitter, Jitter Spectrum, Ch-Ch Delay, Setup Margin, Hold Margin, Clock to Output Timing, Rise, Fall, High and Low Time
Characterize Jitter on Single Inputs, Differential Inputs and Channel to Channel Waveforms
Define Timing Analysis Features by Slope, Level and Hysteresis
Single-shot Analysis on User-selectable Record Lengths
Measure Jitter Timing Parameters Over Contiguous Clock Cycles
Analysis is Performed on Each and Every Valid Pulse in a Single-shot Acquisition
Plot Trends of all Jitter Timing Measurements vs. Cycle or Time
Comprehensive Statistics and Customized Histograms on all Jitter Parameters
Perform Jitter Analysis Without External Equipment
Offers Full Measurement Automation and Control Through GPIB
- Precisely Characterize the Timing and AC Performance of Your Semiconductor Systems
- Measure Timing from Either or Both Edges of Data to Either or Both Edges of Clock
- Determine the Timing Margins in Your Digital Designs
- Characterize Spread Spectrum Clock PLL Systems
- Determine the Data Jitter in Communications Data Streams
From Rohde&Schwarz we have the complete audio analysis system type UPL at our disposal. This system has several advanced measurement setups to determine typical defined specs in the audio range e.g.: SNR, THD, SINAD etc. The system consists of an high quality harmonic signal generator and a extremely high dynamic range signal analyzer.
Key features are:
- Compact instrument with integrated PC
- Wide variety of test functions and numerous test signals for performing virtually all measurement tasks
- Versatile analysis thanks to internal FFT analyzer of wide dynamic range and high frequency resolution
- Future-proof: new test functions can be loaded from diskette
- Any number of digital filters, also for analog measurements
- Maximum dynamic range for the analysis of high-grade components
- Intelligent operator guidance and context-sensitive help system (German and English)
- Mnemonic analysis and generation of channel status data of digital audio interfaces
- Measurement/generation of protocol errors at digital interfaces
- Variety of sweep functions
- More than 10 weighting filters highpass, lowpass, bandpass filters
The UPL from Rohde&SchwarzTop
Above our Semi Automatic Wafer Probestation PA200 from Süss MicroTec is depicted.
On top of the prober two PH250 probemanipulators are mounted to measure RF frequencies.
On the top level plate space is left to mount (Load/Pull) tuners from e.g. Maury.
The wafers can go through a temperature range from -40 to 300 degree C due to the ATT temperature chuck system.